Chinese Cuisine

Chinesefood中国菜肴在烹饪中有许多流派。其中最有影响和代表性的也为社会所公认的有:鲁、 川、 粤、 闽、 苏、 浙、湘、 徽等菜系,即被人们常说的中国“八大菜系”。

一个菜系的形成和它的悠久历史与独到的烹饪特色分不开的。同时也受到这个地区的自然地理、气候条件、资源特产、饮食习惯等影响。有人把“八大菜系”用拟人化的手法描绘为:苏、浙菜好比清秀素丽的江南美女;鲁、皖菜犹如古拙朴实的北方健汉;粤、闽菜宛如风流典雅的公子;川、湘菜就象内涵丰富充实、才艺满身的名士。中国“八大菜系”的烹调技艺各具风韵,其菜肴之特色也各有千秋。


一、 鲁菜 (LU)

Lu宋以后鲁菜就成为“北食”的代表。明、清两代,鲁菜已成宫廷御膳主体,对京、津东北各地的影响较大,现今鲁是由济南和胶东两地的地方菜演化而成的。其特点是清香、鲜嫩、味纯而著名,十分讲究清汤和奶汤的调制,清汤色清而鲜,奶汤色白而醇。济南菜擅长爆、烧、炸、炒,其著名品种有“糖醋黄河鲤鱼”、“九转大肠”、“汤爆双脆”、“烧海螺”、“烧蛎蝗”、“烤大虾”、“清汤燕窝”等。胶东菜以烹制各种海鲜而驰名,口味以鲜为主,偏重清淡,其著名品种有“干蒸加吉鱼”、“油爆海螺”等。建国后,创新名菜的品种有“扒原壳鲍鱼”、“奶汤核桃肉”、“白汁瓤鱼”、“麻粉肘子”等。

Shan­dong Cui­sine, com­mon­ly and sim­ply known as Lu cui­sine, can be said to be the best of the Eight Region­al Cuisines of Chi­na. With a long his­to­ry, Shan­dong Cui­sine once formed an impor­tant part of the impe­r­i­al cui­sine and was wide­ly pro­mot­ed in the north Chi­na. How­ev­er it isn’t so pop­u­lar in south Chi­na and even in the all-embrac­ing Shang­hai.

Shan­dong Cui­sine is fea­tured by a vari­ety of cook­ing tech­niques and seafood. The typ­i­cal dish­es on local menu are braised abalone, braised trepang, sweet and sour carp, Jiuzhuan Dachang and Dezhou Chick­en. Var­i­ous Shan­dong snacks are also worth try­ing.


二、川菜 (Chuan)

Chuan在秦末汉初就初具规模。唐宋时发展迅速,明清已富有名气,现今川菜馆遍布世界。正宗川菜以四川成都、重庆两地的菜肴为代表。重视选料,讲究规格,分色配菜主次分明,鲜艳协调。其特点是酸、甜、麻、辣香、油重、味浓,注重调味,离不开三椒(即辣椒、胡椒、花椒)和鲜姜,以辣、酸、麻脍炙人口,为其他地方菜所少有,形成川菜的独特风味,享有“一菜一味,百菜百味”的美誉。烹调方法擅长于烤、烧、干煸、蒸。川菜善于综合用味,收汁较浓,在咸、甜、麻、辣、酸五味基础上,加上各种调料,相互配合,形成各种复合味,如家常味、咸鲜味、鱼香味、荔枝味怪味等二十三种。代表菜肴的品种有“大煮干丝”、“黄焖鳗”、“怪味鸡块”、“麻婆豆腐”等

Szechuan cui­sine, also called?Sichuan cui­sine, is a style of Chi­nese cui­sine orig­i­nat­ing in the?Sichuan Province of south­west­ern Chi­na famed for bold fla­vors, par­tic­u­lar­ly the pun­gency and spici­ness result­ing from lib­er­al use of?garlic and?chili pep­pers, as well as the unique flavour of the?Sichuan pep­per­corn (花椒).?Peanuts,?sesame paste and?ginger are also promi­nent ingre­di­ents in Szechuan cook­ing


三、粤菜 (Yue)

西汉时就有粤菜的记载,南宋时受御厨随往羊城的影响,明清发展迅速20世纪随对外通商,吸取西餐的某些特长,粤菜也推向世界,仅美国纽约就有粤菜馆数千家。粤菜是以广州、潮州、东江三地的菜为代表而形成的。菜的原料较广,花色繁多,形态新颖,善于变化,讲究鲜、嫩、爽、滑,一般夏秋力求清淡,冬春偏重浓醇。调味有所谓五滋(香、松、臭、肥、浓)、六味(酸、甜、苦、咸、辣、鲜)之别。其烹调擅长煎、炸、烩、炖、煸等,菜肴色彩浓重,滑而不腻。尤以烹制蛇、狸、猫、狗、猴、鼠等野生动物而负盛名,著名的菜肴品种有“三蛇龙虎凤大会”、“五蛇羹”、“盐 火局鸡”、“蚝油牛肉”、“烤乳猪”、“干煎大虾碌”和“冬瓜盅”等。

Tast­ing clean, light, crisp and fresh, Guang­dong cui­sine, famil­iar to West­ern­ers, usu­al­ly has fowl and oth­er meats that pro­duce its unique dish­es. The basic cook­ing tech­niques include roast­ing, stir-fry­ing, saute­ing, deep-fry­ing, brais­ing, stew­ing and steam­ing. Steam­ing and stir-fry­ing are most fre­quent­ly used to pre­serve the ingre­di­ents’ nat­ur­al fla­vors.


四、闽菜 (Min)

起源于福建省闽候县。它以福州、泉州、厦门等地的菜肴为代表发展起来的。其特点是色调美观,滋味清鲜而著称。烹调方法擅长于炒、溜、煎、煨,尤以“糟”最具特色。由于福建地处东南沿海,盛产多种海鲜,如海鳗、蛏子、鱿鱼、黄鱼、海参等,因此,多以海鲜为原料烹制各式菜肴,别具风味。著名菜肴品种有“佛跳墙”、“醉糟鸡”、“酸辣烂鱿鱼”、“烧片糟鸡”、“太极明虾”、“清蒸加力鱼”、“荔枝肉”等。

Fujian cui­sine is a tra­di­tion­al Chi­nese cuisine.Many diverse seafoods are used, includ­ing hun­dreds of types of fish, shell­fish and tur­tles, pro­vid­ed by the Fujian coastal region.Woodland del­i­ca­cies such as?edible mush­rooms and?bamboo shoots are also utilized.?Slicing tech­niques are val­ued in the cui­sine, and uti­lized to enhance the fla­vor, aro­ma and tex­ture of seafood and oth­er foods.?Fujian cui­sine is often served in a broth or soup, and cook­ing tech­niques include brais­ing, stew­ing, steam­ing and boil­ing.


五、苏菜 (Su)

起始于南北朝时期,唐宋以后,与浙菜竞修秀,成为“南食”两大台柱之一。江苏菜是由苏州、扬州、南京、镇江四大菜为代表而构成的。其特点是浓中带淡,鲜香酥烂,原汁原汤浓而不腻,口味平和,咸中带甜。其烹调技艺擅长于炖、焖、烧、煨、炒而著称。烹调时用料严谨,注重配色,讲究造型,四季有别。苏州菜口味偏甜,配色和谐;扬州菜清淡适口,主料突出,刀工精细,醇厚入味;南京、镇江菜口味和醇,玲珑细巧,尤以鸭制的菜肴负有盛名。著名的菜肴品种有“清汤火方”、“鸭包鱼翅”、“松鼠桂鱼”、“西瓜鸡”、“盐水鸭”等。

Jiang­su cui­sine, also known as Su (Cai) Cui­sine for short, is one of the major com­po­nents of Chi­nese cui­sine, and con­sists of the styles of Yangzhou, Nan­jing, Suzhou and Zhen­jiang dish­es. It is very famous in the whole world for its dis­tinc­tive style and taste. It is espe­cial­ly pop­u­lar in the low­er reach of the Yangtze Riv­er.

Typ­i­cal cours­es of Jiang­su cui­sine are Jin­ling salt­ed dried duck (Nanjing’s most famous dish), crys­tal meat (pork heels in a bright, brown sauce), clear crab shell meat­balls (pork meat­balls in crab shell pow­der, fat­ty, yet fresh), Yangzhou steamed Jerky strips (dried tofu, chick­en, ham and pea leaves), triple com­bo duck, dried duck, and Farewell My Con­cu­bine (soft-shelled tur­tle stewed with many oth­er ingre­di­ents such as chick­en, mush­rooms and wine).


六、浙菜 (Zhe)

以杭州、宁波、绍兴、温州等地的菜肴为代表发展而成的。其特点是清、香、脆、嫩、爽、鲜。浙江盛产鱼虾,又是著名的风景旅游胜地,湖山清秀,山光水色,淡雅宜人,故其菜如景,不少名菜,来自民间,制作精细,变化较多。烹调技法擅长于炒、炸、烩、溜、蒸、烧。久负盛名的菜肴有“西湖醋鱼”、“生爆蟮片”、“东坡肉”、“龙井虾仁”、“干炸响铃”、“叫化童鸡”、“清汤鱼圆”、“干菜焖肉”、“大汤黄鱼”、“爆墨鱼卷”、“锦绣鱼丝” 等。

Zhe­jiang cui­sine is one of the Eight Culi­nary Tra­di­tions of Chi­na. It is derived from the native cook­ing styles of the Zhe­jiang region in Chi­na. Food made in the Zhe­jiang style is not greasy, hav­ing instead a fresh and soft fla­vor with a mel­low fra­grance. The cui­sine con­sists of at least three styles, each orig­i­nat­ing from a city in the province: Hangzhou style: Char­ac­ter­ized by rich vari­a­tions and the uti­liza­tion of bam­boo shoots. Which is served by the well known restau­rants such as the Drag­on Well Manor (龙井草堂). Shaox­ing style: Spe­cial­izes in poul­try and fresh­wa­ter fish Ning­bo style: Spe­cial­iz­ing in seafood, with empha­sis on fresh­ness and salty dish­es.


七、湘菜

以湘江流域、洞庭湖区和湘西山区的菜肴为代表发展而成的。其特点是用料广泛,油重色浓,多以辣椒、熏腊为原料,口味注重香鲜、酸辣、软嫩。烹调方法擅长腊、熏、煨、蒸、炖、炸、炒。其著名菜肴品种有“腊味合蒸”、“东安子鸡”、“麻辣子鸡”、“红煨鱼翅”、“汤泡肚”、“冰糖湘莲”、“金钱鱼”等。

Hunan cui­sine is well known for its hot spicy flavor,fresh aro­ma and deep col­or. Com­mon cook­ing tech­niques include stew­ing, fry­ing, pot-roast­ing, brais­ing, and smok­ing. Due to the high agri­cul­tur­al out­put of the region, ingre­di­ents for Hunan dish­es are many and var­ied.


八、徽菜 (Hui)

以沿江、沿淮、徽洲三地区的地方菜为代表构成的。其特点是选料朴实,讲究火功,重油重色 ,味道醇厚,保持原汁原味。徽菜以烹制山野海味而闻名,早在南宋时,“沙地马蹄鳖,雪中牛尾狐”,就是那时的著名菜肴了。其烹调方法擅长于烧、焖、炖。著名的菜肴品种有“符离集烧鸡”、“火腿炖甲鱼”、“腌鲜桂鱼”、“火腿炖鞭笋”、“雪冬烧山鸡”、“红烧果子狸”、“奶汁肥王鱼”、“毛峰熏鲥鱼”等。

Anhui cuisine is one of the Eight Culi­nary Tra­di­tions of Chi­na. It is derived from the native cook­ing styles of the Huang­shan Moun­tains region in Chi­na and is sim­i­lar to Jiang­su cui­sine.

 

Spe­cial Thanks to these Local Restau­rants for all kinds of Spon­sor­ship:

Asian Buf­fet (5130 North 27th Street, Lin­coln, NE)

Asian Fusion (2840 Jamie Ln, Lin­coln, NE)

Gin­ger (6055 Apples Way, Lin­coln, NE)

Ichiban Sichuan (151 N 8th St #100, Lin­coln, NE)

Impe­r­i­al Palace (701 North 27th Street, Lin­coln, NE)

Lan House (1226 P St Suite 102, Lin­coln, NE)

Mr.Hui (3255 Corn­husker Hwy, Suite B6, Lin­coln, NE)

Mr.Hui 2 (4131 Pio­neer Woods Dr, Suite 102, Lin­coln, NE)

Per­fect Din­ner (2855 N 27th St, Lin­coln, NE)

Thai Gar­den (245 North 13th Street, Lin­coln, NE)